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History of Laptops / Notebook

on 02/02/12 | 23:38

History of Laptops / Notebook
History of Laptops / Notebook. Before the laptop was introduced technique, the idea of ​​portable computers that have been raised by Alan Kay. This can be seen on the Dynabook concept, developed by Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Centre) in the early 1970's. This concept is the development of a prototype Alto which is also done by Xerox PARC.

The first portable computer was marketed commercially Osborne 1, developed in 1981. This computer is the first computer that can be taken anywhere even when using it we have to connect it with the power house. With a slim CRT screen size of 5 "and weighs 23.5 pounds (12 kg), the computer is using CP / M Operating System and comes with a 4 MHz Z80 CPU, main memory 65 kilobytes, and floppy disk drives.

In 1983 Compaq released its first product which is also quite successful, the Compaq Portable. This product is an IBM clone computer, because at that time IBM was the standard program for all computers. This computer is more easily carried when compared with the Osborne 1 because it is lighter. Used the same operating system with the Osborne 1, the CP / M OS. Also this computer also runs MS-DOS programs.

Other computers are also issued this year was the Epson HX-20. This product actually began to be developed in 1981, but its launch has just been implemented in 1983. Computers that fall into this category of handheld computers using the full keyboard with 68 keys, batteries, nickel cadmium (NiCD) rechargeable, dot-matrix LCD screen with a resolution of 120 x 32 pixels. This screen capable of displaying four lines with each line containing 20 characters. In addition, there are MS-BASIC and RAM as much as 16 kibibyte which can be enlarged to 32 kibibyte.

The existence of a laptop that can be debated starting with the launch of the GRiD Compass 1101, April 1982. Computers are designed by Bill Moggridge of the British Industrial in 1979. The material used to make a magnesium shell model taking (Clamshell). With this computer model can be closed with the screen position is above and dealing with the keyboard.

This laptop uses an Intel 8086, electroluminescent display (CGA) with a resolution of 320 x 200 pixels and 384 kilobytes of bubble memory. It also uses a modem with a speed of 1200 bits per second. Hardrive and floppy disks connected using 488 I / O (known as GPIB = General Purpose Bus Instrumental). The operating system used was GRID-OS.

Computers that are issued by the GRID Systems Corp.. This, during the 1980's used by NASA and the U.S. army. In 1988 GRIDD Systems Corp.. taken over by Tandy Corporation (RadioShack).

In 1983 the newly issued new computers sold in 1984, the Sharp PC-500 and the Gavilan SC. Gavilan is the first portable computer that uses the name 'laptop'. Both computers are using the same model with the GRiD Compass, the shell model. Both had LCD displays, and can be connected to optional external printers.

In 1983 also launched a computer capable of performing the most sales for the first time in the history of laptops, namely Kyocera Kyotronic 85. This laptop was quickly licensed by Tandy Corporation., Olivetti, and NEC. They saw its great potential for success as TRS-80 Model 100 (or Tandy 100), Olivetti M-10, NEC PC-8201.

This machine is operated with standard AA batteries. The Tandy's built with a BASIC program, text editor, and a terminal program, provided by Microsoft and written by Bill Gates. Also applied also tiltable LCD screen with 8 x 40 characters and an internal modem.

In terms of ease of carry, battery life and long service, and the price is cheap, the computer is becoming a favorite among journalists. It weighed more than 2 kg with dimensions of 30 x 21.5 x 4.5 cm (12 "x 8.5" x 1.75 "). Also this laptop use by 8 KiB RAM is expandable to 24 KB, and a 3 MHz processor.

On 3 April 1986 IBM launched the first laptop with a commercial purpose, namely the IBM PC Convertible. This laptop is equipped with a 3.5 "floppy disk drive which is a standard device. The processor used is Intel 80c88, which is a CMOS version of Intel 8088, which operates at 4.77 MHz. In it there are also 256 KiB of RAM that can be enlarged to 512 KiB. With LCD display and weighing 13 pounds, the computer is equipped with a handle that makes it easier to carry. This laptop uses a battery as its power source.

Paa 1987, Toshiba launched two products at once, the T1000 and T1200. Although limited to just using the DOS operating system stored in ROM, two models from Toshiba has a very small and lightweight so that the load to be carried in a backpack. It also uses lead-acid batteries.

In 1987 the U.S. Air Force contract offers to make a laptop in large numbers, reaching 200,000 units. Competition for this contract fight occurred between the laptop industry is large, such as IBM, Toshiba, Compaq, NEC, and Zenith Data Systems (ZDS).

ZDS which had earlier won an agreement with the IRS for its Z-171, was awarded this contract for its, supersport. Supersport is equipped with the Intel 8086 processor, dual floppy disk drives, backlit, the screen is blue and white STN LCD, and NiCD batteries. For the next processor used is an Intel 80286 processor with 20 MB hard drive. This makes the ZDS became the largest supplier of laptops during the period 1987 to 1988.

To fulfill this contract, ZDS partnered with Tottori Sanyo's conduct to provide them. This is the first collaboration between a brand known for its OEM (Original Equipment Manufacture) from Asia. Furthermore, many well-known computer manufacturers who work closely with OEMs from Asia, like Compaq and Citizen. It also resulted in the growing OEMs in Asia, such as Chicon, Acer, Quanta, Compal, Twinhead, Sanyo, Tottori Sanyo, Citizen, and Casio.

In 1988 was launched by the Cambridge Z88 Cambridge Computer. This computer was designed by Sir Clive Sinclair, the shape of A4 paper. This computer uses the power of a standard battery and comes with a basic spreadsheet, word processor, and communications programs. This laptop was the forerunner of making PDAs.

In 1989 two different companies, NEC and Apple Computer, launched a laptop each, namely NEC and Apple Machintosh Ultralit Portable. Nec Ultralit launched in mid 1989. This laptop is probably the first notebook manufactured by NEC. This laptop has a weight of not less than 2 kg. On this computer in it has been there the hard drive and RAM by 2 mebibyte.

Portable Machintosh launched by Apple Computer has a clear active matrix display and a battery that can last a long time. Unfortunately with these conditions, relatively poor sales of the Mac Portable. This is due to the form of Portable Macs are less attractive.

Series laptops of Apple Computer, Apple Power Books, was launched in 1991. This is the de facto standard laptops that continue to survive until now. This can be seen on the placement of the keyboard, the availability of the palm rest, and trackball. The next Power Series Books for the first time using the display to 256 colors (Power Books output 165c-1993), touchpad, and 16-bit voice recorder. In addition, there are Ethernet Network Adapter (Power Books 500 series output in 1994).

Spring of 1995 was a significant turning point in the history of notebook computers. In August 1995, Miocrosoft introduced Windows 95. This is the first time Microsoft have full control on the management operating system (operating system). Windows 95 is suitable for application on an Intel Pentium processor and in accordance with the existing ROM on notebooks.
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